Transcript of the Official Shorthand Notes of 'The Trial of Josef Kramer and Forty Four Others'
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: My next witness is Anna [Ada] Bimko, and I understand the Defending Officers wish to make an application.
MAJOR CRANFIELD: The Defending Officers wish me to say that in view of the deposition made by the next witness they would like the numbers removed from the accused chests.
THE PRESIDENT: The accused are sitting in a specific order at present; would you like that order changed?
MAJOR CRANFIELD: No.
THE PRESIDENT: (To the interpreters). Will you translate to the accused what I say now. You will remove the numbers from the front of your bodies, that is, the numbers on your chests. You may help one another remove them and then can be kept rolled up in your hands or kept face downwards in your laps.
(The accused remove their numbers)
MAJOR CRANFIELD: The Polish Defending Officer asks me to say that if the witness gives evidence in German he will not require it to be translated into Polish.
THE PRESIDENT: Can you tell me in what language your witness will be giving evidence?
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: In German. The only thing that I think must be made quite clear is that the Polish accused can understand, in other words the interpretation must be given. I do not think that even with the consent of the accused we can carry on the proceedings in a language or take evidence in a language they cannot understand. It may be, of course, that they can understand German as opposed to speaking it.
THE JUDGE ADVOCATE: I am bound to advise you that in my view in this particular kind of Court the accused must hear the evidence in a language which they can understand. Counsel cannot possibly know how to cross examine except on instructions and his instructions must necessarily be according to this evidence. I must advise you that I do not think that anybody should waive the rights of a person who does not understand the language when serious accusations of fact are being made against the accused. The Defending Officers are, no doubt, endeavouring to shorten the proceedings but I think it would be wrong in law.
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: It may be that the Polish accused can understand German. If that is so then, of course, that may be of assistance.
THE PRESIDENT: I should like to hear the Polish Defending Officer on that point. You realise what the learned Judge Advocate said, that the accused must be able to understand what is said by a witness and the Court would not be prepared to say that evidence should be given in a language which such accused as you are representing cannot understand. What I am not clear on is whether they understand sufficient German to be able to know what the witness is saying.
LIEUTENANT JEDRZEJOWICZ: I think the amount of German they know varies quite a lot and what I suggest is would it not be possible if only evidence by witness of general character would be translated into Polish and evidence given by witnesses against any of my accused.
(The Court confer.)
THE PRESIDENT: The Court has decided that the evidence must be translated into Polish so that the Polish accused will understand, excepting in any such case where a particular witness is called to make specific accusation against one or two of the German accused where there is no question of that witness raising any point at all against the Polish accused, but in cases where the Polish accused may be implicated by the witness then the evidence must be translated into Polish; is that clear?
LIEUTENANT JEDRZEJOWICZ: Yes.
THE JUDGE ADVOCATE: Is the oath you have taken binding on your conscience? - Yes.
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: Is your name Anna Bimko? - Ada Bimko.
Are you of Polish nationality? - I am a Jewess from Poland.
You are a Doctor of Medicine? - Yes.
When were you arrested? - I was sent on the 4th August, 1943, from Sosnowitz to Auschwitz.
For what reason were you arrested? - During that week all the Jews of the town where I was living were arrested and because of my being a Jewess I was sent to Auschwitz camp.
How many persons arrived at Auschwitz with you? - 5000 Jews came with me.
When you arrived at Auschwitz station what happened there? - We were brought out from the trains - we left the trains - and lined up, men on one side and women on the other.
What happened then? - The women and children were loaded on trucks and sent away.
What happened then? - Then an SS man who was standing there - later I was told that he was a doctor - pointed with his fingers and said "Right" and "Left," by looking at the women and children, and we, the younger women, were treated in the same way.
Who were put on the right and who on the left? - There was no proper method in it; it depended entirely on his whim.
What happened to the people who were selected by him in this way? - A part of those were loaded on trucks and about 250 of the remainder were sent into the camp.
What happened to the people who were loaded on the truck? - Those were loaded on trucks and at the time being a new prisoner I had no idea what happened to them, but later on I was told that they were sent to the crematorium and gassed.
Was your father, your mother, your brother, your husband and your small son of six years of age, included in that number? - Yes.
After that date did you attend any other selections of this kind? - Yes. I was working as a doctor in the hospital and was present at several selections.
Of the 5000 people who came with you how many were not sent to the gas chamber? - With me were 250 women; later on I heard that 250 men were also sent into the camp - a sum altogether of 500 people.
These 4500 people who were sent to the crematorium, had they committed any other offence than that of being a Polish Jew?
MAJOR CRANFIELD: How can the witness possibly answer that question?
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: She has told us that on the day the Polish Jews of the town in which she came were rounded up and were taken there. I will not press the question if you think fit.
THE PRESIDENT: I think I would not.
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: Do you know of any further transport from your town? - In the week - I mean from Sunday to Thursday - from our town alone 25000 people were sent away.
You have told us that later you saw other selections in the camp. When as a rule were those selections made? - The first of these selections happened after a few months of tranquility, just on the day of the greatest feast of the Jews, the Day of Atonement.
When, as a rule, were selections made? At what period of an inmate's life in the camp? - There was no proper method. Sometimes the prisoner arrived today and after a few hours he had to undergo such a sort of selection.
Where did such selections take place as a rule? - There were three methods of selection. The first one immediately at the arrival of the prisoners; the second in the camp among the healthy prisoners ; and the third in the hospital amongst the sick.
Who took part in the selections? - The camp doctor was always present and other SS men and SS women.
Of the selections that you attended or saw in the hospital, how were people chosen there? - All the sick Jews were ordered to parade quite naked in front of the doctor, and they had to pass this sort of commission. The seemingly weak people were put aside at once, but other times the doctor looked also at the hands or at the arms and any small sort of thing which caught his attention was sufficient for him.
Were any SS men or women present on parades of that kind? - Always were SS men and SS women from the camp present there.
Did they take any active part in the selection? - Sometimes they pointed with a finger to one or the other, pointing out that those may join those people who were condemned to death.
Do you see any of those persons here today?
THE PRESIDENT: If your witness wishes, she may go into the body of the Court in front of where the Defending Officers are, and the accused can stand up if necessary.
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: I am obliged.
(The witness indicates accused Dr. Klein)
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: (To the witness) Whilst you are there, do you recognise anyone else? I do not necessarily mean doctors, but anybody else you recognise? - The first one is Kramer; the second is Dr. Klein; the third is Block leader Weingartner; number five is Hössler, who was the camp commandant or camp leader for a time in Auschwitz; the second woman was in Belsen in a supervisory capacity.
Do you know her name? - I believe her name is Volkenrath. The third woman is Ehlert, also a supervisor and deputy for Volkenrath. The fourth woman's name is Grese, who was for the working parties. The first two women in row number three were also in Belsen as supervisors, but I do not remember their names. Number six from the left in the second row was an electrician in the camp. I recognise him but do not remember his name. I recognise in the third row, the second woman from the right whose name is Koper. She was what is called a Blockälteste and was employed with the camp police also amongst the internees. I recognise the first woman in the third row the first from the right. Her name is Stania, and she was a Lagerälteste. I recognise also this man (Indicating). I do not remember his name, but I know that he was responsible for the kitchen in the women's camp, and I have seen how he shot, before the British troops entered, a woman. I recognise this woman here in the first row. I know only her Christian name which is Hilde; she was a Kapo. I do not remember exactly, but I believe that I recognise this woman as an inspector in Auschwitz, and in my mind I see her walking about with a very big dog.
THE PRESIDENT: I think perhaps it would be better if I were now to read out the names of the people I gathered she recognised and the Court will then be able to judge whether I have got my notes right. They are as follows: Kramer, Klein, Weingartner, Hössler, Elizabath Volkenrath, Ehlert, Grese, Hilde, Helena Koper, Stanislawa Starostka, who she called Stania; and I make it she recognised as having been in the camp: Karl Flrazich, Walter Otto; Gertrude Fiest; Gertrude Sauer; and Juana Bormann, as having had a dog with her.
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: That is in accordance with my note. (To the witness) You were telling us about the selections; you had told us that various SS doctors attended the parade, including Dr. Klein whom you recognise. Do you recognise here any of the SS men who attended the parade? - I do recognise two, Kramer and Hössler.
Have you seen either or both of those two taking any active part in the selection? - Both have taken part actively during these selections.
When persons had been selected, what usually happened to them? What was the programme of events? - When they had been selected in that way, as I described before, they paraded quite naked. Then they had to go quite naked to a very ill-famed block, No. 25, where they were waiting often for days without food or drink, naked, until the trucks arrived to take them away to the crematorium.
Do you remember the 1st December, 1943? - Yes, I do remember that was a day of very large scale selections. Typhus was rampant through the camp and there were in the hospital 4124 sick Jewish women. Out of this number 4000 were selected for the crematorium and only 124 remained.
Did any of the persons in Court today take part in that selection? - Dr. Klein was present and took part in this selection.
How many gas chambers were there at Auschwitz? - Five crematoria.
In what section of the camp were the crematoria? - I do remember one crematorium which was just behind the women's camp and a second which was in a part of the camp called Brzezinki [Birkenau], and all the others, particularly all the chimneys of these crematoria, were quiet visible from our camp.
Was Auschwitz divided into a number of camps? - Yes.
Which camps were the crematoria in? - The crematoria were in a portion called the Birkenau.
Who was the commandant of that portion of the camp? - Lately it was Kommandant Kramer.
Who was the Lagerführer of that portion? - For a time the Lagerführer was Hössler and also a woman called Mandel.
Did you see her later at Belsen? - Yes, I did.
What position did she hold there? - She was the first supervisor in Belsen Camp.
THE PRESIDENT: There is one point on which I am not quite clear. You said Volkenrath was "first supervisor"; do you mean senior?
THE INTERPRETER: Yes.
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: Have you ever been into one of the gas chambers? - Yes.
When was that? - In August, 1944. I was working in a portion of the camp which was called [unreadable] as a doctor, and again a new crowd of these selected for the gas chamber had arrived, and as they were sick they came covered with a blanket. After two days we were told to fetch all those blankets from the gas chamber. I took the opportunity, as I always wanted to see with my own eyes this ill-famed gas chamber, and I went in. I did go into this crematorium.
Will you describe it to the Court? - It was a brick building and there were trees around in a way as if it were camouflaged. I went in and in the first room I met a man whom I knew came from the same town as I do; his name was Josef Goldberg. In this first room there was also an SS man with a rank of Unterscharführer, and he belonged to the Red Cross. I was told that in this first big room the people left their clothes. From this room people were led into a second which made an enormous impression. I gained the impression that hundreds and hundreds of people may go into this room it was so large. It gave me the impression of a shower bath, because It resembled the shower baths or ablution rooms we had in the camp. There were showers on top of the ceiling.
How many of these sprays were there? - There must have been very many, because these sprays were all over the ceiling in rows which went parallel.
Of what were the floor, walls and ceilings made? - It was just like a shower bath.
Were there any drains? - No. That was the most astonishing fact for somebody who did observe, I did not see any drains in the floor. It was most astonishing, because all those people who went into this room were issued with a towel and a cake of soap so that they should have the impression that they wore going to have a bath, but for anybody who looked at the floor it was quite clear that it was not so, because there were no drains.
Did you then leave the actual room with the sprays in? - I was in that room with the sprays and there was a small door which opened to a room which was pitch dark; it gave the impression of a corridor. I saw a few lines of rails with a small wagon, which was called a lorry, they called it a lorry, and I was told that those prisoners who were already gassed were put on these wagons and sent directly to the crematorium.
Was the crematorium in the same building? - I believe it was in the same building, but I myself did not see the stove.
To avoid any confusion later, what did the prisoners usually call these buildings? - Crematoriums.
Did you see any other room in the building? - Yes, I have seen another room. I was led a few steps and there, higher above this room, there was a small room with a very low ceiling, and I noticed two pipes. I was told that those two pipes contained the gas. Then in a corner I saw two huge metal containers, which, as I later was told, contained also gas.
Did any of the prisoners keep any records in respect of these gas chambers? - Yes. There was a troop of internees who were working in these crematoria and this working Kommando had the name of "Sonderkommando", special Kommando. These Kommandos were changed after a few months, because they themselves were also destroyed; they were gassed. One of those who took part in these Kommandos, a man called Grzecks, told me that others of those Kommandos before having been gassed had complete records of all those transports which did arrive and then eventually were destroyed. This man Grzeck told me that others who took part in these kommandos, and in fact he himself, kept records and that the number of Jews who were destroyed in this gas chamber would be about four million.
In addition to the gas chamber, whilst you were working at Auschwitz in the hospital, did you see any treatment of women in the hospital? - In Birkenau itself there were no particular experiments. However, in Auschwitz there was a Block No. 10, and there experiments had been made. One woman who returned into the women's camp tried to commit suicide. I asked her, "Why did you try to commit suicide?" She told me because they experimented on her artificial insemination. She told me that now she believed she would never be able to bear children because they destroyed all her woman's dignity, therefore she did not want to continue to live.
THE JUDGE ADVOCATE: What does the witness mean by that, a state of mind or a physical condition?
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: I took it to mean a physical condition.
THE PRESIDNET: I took it to mean a state of mind.
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: Perhaps we had better clear that up.
THE PRESIDENT: I understood she had been reduced to such a state.
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: (To the witness): When you say that this woman had lost her capacity to bear children, do you mean by that that the capacity to bear children had been physically removed, or merely that she had lost the will to bear children? - She thought that because of all those experiments she had to undergo she would be physically incapable to bear children.
Leaving the hospital for a moment, what was the food of the prisoners in Auschwitz? - The rations in Auschwitz were the morning coffee, for lunch soup, which contained mainly water and pieces of potato or some vegetables, and for dinner at 6 o'clock at night water, a loaf of bread, sometimes with margarine or a piece of sausage.
What was the treatment of the internees by the SS? - The treatment was so that it is hard to describe, blows were raining down and then on roll call we had to stand about for hours and hours in snow or in rain, in heat or in cold. The standing about alone exhausted us entirely.
What happened if you moved or if you were late for roll call? - If anybody moved during roll call then the whole block to which he belonged had to stand for hours, and sometimes to kneel down, and even with their arms raised high. However, if somebody came too late to roll call then the whole camp had to stand on parade for many hours and he, the culprit, was beaten so badly that he sometimes died from it.
MAJOR WINWOOD: May I question that translation from German into English on the last question? I think the witness said the culprit was not beaten to death, but nearly to death.
THE WITNESS: I did say that he nearly died. I must, however, add that I was present myself when a man called Tauber in Birkenau because a woman came too late on parade, hit and kicked her so long that she actually died there and then.
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: Have you seen anybody in hospital as result of such treatment? - I did work in the hospital and I saw that a number of people came with wounds on their hands and their legs, but particularly frequently on their heads, coming from blows.
After you left Auschwitz I think you went to Belsen? - Yes.
What date did you go to Belsen? - I arrived in Belsen on 23rd November, 1944.
What were the conditions at Belsen when you first arrived? - The conditions were bad, but one thing I did observe, the internees there were not beaten and there were no roll calls.
What was the food there when you first went there? - In the morning there was either coffee or soup, for midday meal soup, about half a pint, and in the evening one-sixth of a loaf of bread three times a week, the other three times instead of bread soup again.
Is that diet sufficient to maintain life? - This ration does not kill instantly, but if you live on these rations for a long period under those conditions you must inevitably die.
You told us that you got there on the 23rd November, Kramer arrived early December. Was he followed by anyone else from Auschwitz? - At the end of the month of January and in February other SS men and women did arrive from Auschwitz.
Was there any change after they arrived, after Kramer arrived, or after the others arrived? - Yes, there was a change. We had suddenly the feeling that Belsen was going to become a second Auschwitz; for instance, they started with roll calls, Appelles, and those SS men who previously did not hit the prisoners started now to do so.
What sort of an example did Kramer set himself? - I do remember incident. Russian prisoners were working in the women's camp, they were erecting a hut, and I remember four Russian prisoners who were so weak that when they carried a wall, the side of this hut, they had to bend down very low to be able to carry it. I remember that Kramer came and started shouting at these Russians," Quicker, quicker," but those people were unable to work quicker. He went to the Russians and kicked them.
Did you work in the hospital at Belsen? - Yes, I did.
Did you see any prisoners admitted there suffering from beating? - Yes, many came. Some of them could be attended to at once and their wounds bandaged, but some of them were in such a state that they had to remain in hospital.
Did you see Dr. Klein at Belsen? - Yes.
When did he arrive? - Once he came to deputise for the camp doctor and stayed for three weeks, afterwards he went back.
What period was that, when he came to deputise? - I believe it was in the month of January.
Did he come back again? - Then the camp doctor became ill or had to go away - I do not know - anyhow I believe in the month of March Dr. Klein arrived again and then became second camp doctor there.
Who was the number one doctor? - Hauptsturmführer Horstmann.
Did Dr. Klein give you any assistance in looking after patients or organising medical services? - He almost did not bother at all about the camp.
Did he make any attempt at organization? - No.
What was the medical supply situation? - We received very small quantities. We had 2200 patients in the hospital and apart from that we had 15000 sick women in camp. Now to give an example, we received for a whole week 300 aspirin tablets, so that I was quite desperate what to do with all these people.
Were there sufficient medical supplies in the camp if they had been issued? - Three or four days before the British troops entered the camp, at a time when the SS men had already white armlets round their arms - later on I knew that that meant our camp was neutral territory - suddenly we got two more rooms for our chemistry, and then we discovered that there were enormous stores with medicine and other instruments of such quantity which we did not even see or think of, and suddenly whatever we asked for in the case of medicine we were given, and any amount we were asking for was given to us.
By inside the camp do you mean inside camp No. 1 or inside the whole of Belsen? I want to get it quite clear where these two stores were. - It was inside camp No. 1; I did not know any other camp at that time.
Did you even know of the existence of those two stores until shortly before the British came? - I did not.
I want to turn from the general to the particular. One of the persons you recognised this morning was the man at the far end of the front row of the dock? - Yes.
What can you tell us about that man ? - He was in charge of the kitchen which was situated in the women's camp. Near the kitchen there was a room where potatoes were peeled, a peeling room, and there a young woman internee was bending down to take a few peelings of these potatoes which were lying about, and suddenly this man jumped out of the kitchen with his gun in his hand and shot twice at this woman. I was only a few yards away from the spot, then I approached the wounded woman and very soon I had to state that she was dead.
Just one other thing, turning back to Auschwitz for one moment, you mentioned that one woman, Bormann, had a very large dog there? - Yes.
What did she use the dog for? - In general the idea was that the dog should guard those prisoners which were out on working parties. But we had to observe, particularly in the hospital, that many of those who took part in working parties were bitten by that dog, particularly at the legs.
Did you treat any of these injuries in hospital? - Yes, we treated them, myself too, and we had to bandage those wounds.
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: That, Sir, concludes my examination in chief.
THE PRESIDENT: Major Winwood ...
MAJOR MUNRO: I think my friend wishes to consult with the accused. He has asked me to undertake my own cross examination first and that he should follow me.
THE PRESIDENT: You will start your cross examination now whilst he is in conference.
MAJOR MUNRO: Yes.
THE JUDGE ADVOCATE: The point is we are going to adjourn at half past twelve, therefore the first Defending Officer will have tomorrow morning to consult with Kramer so that he need not hurry.
Cross-examined by MAJOR MUNRO: Is it not the case that on the selection parade you told us about it was only doctors who did the actual selection? - The doctors did it in the presence of the others.
And is it not the case that the SS personnel also present were under the directions of the doctors? - I do not think so, because I myself observed that sometimes a doctor did not see somebody who was particularly weak, but an SS man pointed out immediately: "Here is one who you overlooked."
Is it not the case that that was done on the instructions of the doctors? - What the doctors instructions were I do not know, I only know that the SS men pointed out: "Here is one you did not see", "Here is one who has [hurt or hid] himself" and so on. Who gave the instructions I do not know.
On these parades were persons selected for any purpose other than the gas chamber? - Yes, sometimes women were selected from the camp to be sent into brothels. I want to add that that happened not during these selections but at other times.
Were there a great many parades? - Yes. From time to time, and particularly the previous Lagerführer Hössler selected these women.
THE JUDGE ADVOCATE: Which is she saying, Hössler picked the people for the brothels or picked them for the gas chamber?
MAJOR MUNRO: I am trying to find that out.
THE JUDGE ADVOCATE: Will you elaborate on that because I am not clear.
MAJOR MUNRO: Were there parades at Auschwitz for all sorts of purposes?...
COLONEL BACKHOUSE: Can we have the question first?
MAJOR MUNRO: (To the witness) Is the parade you are speaking about now a parade for selection for the gas chamber or for selection for brothels? - Those selections were entirely separate, but the selections I was speaking about now concerning Hössler were for brothels.
Is it not the case that there were also parades at which working parties were detailed? - When the working parades [parties] returned at night at the camp then these parades took place, but only for the sake again of working kommando's.
I do not think you quite understood my question. Were there parades held at which working parties were chosen? - I would like to know what sort of working parties. I do not understand the question. What sort of working parties or when?
By working parties I mean working parties to go anywhere inside or outside the camp to work? - These selections were made but not always in the presence of the Lager commandant or the doctor only ....
THE JUDGE ADVOCATE: I am afraid we are getting in rather a muddle. The Defending Officer, I understand, is appearing for Hössler, and his questions will naturally be directed to the activities of Hössler. He has now got clear that Hössler took part in the selection of women for the brothels. He now wants to get the witness's attention directed to the selection of working parties concerning only Hössler in relation to those parties. We will try again. Put the question, but we do not want what Kramer did or anything of that kind at this moment. Will you put it again.
MAJOR MUNRO: Were there other parades held at which parties for labour were chosen? - There were other parades and at those parades people were selected for working parties.
Were these different kinds of parades all assembled in the same way? - No, they were made in a different way, entirely separate when it was a call for selection for the gas chamber, then we were told, "All Jews assemble now", but for selection for the brothels that was not the case for Jews.
Did you see all parades which took place in the camp?
THE JUDGE ADVOCATE: With great respect, that is a question which surely will not help at all, will it? She is supposed to be a doctor in the hospital.
MAJOR MUNRO: I am trying to point out that there may have been different types of parades which she cannot speak to [of].
THE JUDGE ADVOCATE: You are entitled to say in your closing address that she gave a lot of information about parades of which it is obvious to the Court she could only have a small impression.
MAJOR MUNRO: I will take the question out. (To the witness) When you were at Auschwitz did you see any new buildings being erected? - When I was there, no.
Regarding the dog which has been referred to by you, will you give the Court a description of that dog? - Which dog do you mean?
The dog you spoke about yourself. - I remember it was a big dog, a wolf dog, and I remember also a black dog, also a wolf dog.
THE JUDGE ADVOCATE: May I assist you. Is not the dog about which you are speaking that of Juana Bormann?
MAJOR MUNRO: Yes.
THE JUDGE ADVOCATE: Why not ask what Juana Bormann's dog was like?
MAJOR MUNRO: (To the witness) You recognise the accused, Juana Bormann? - Yes.
And you said you had seen her walking about with a dog; is that right? - Yes.
Will you give the Court a description of that dog? - I cannot give a real description because I remembered only when I saw Bormann's face; I remembered in my mind that I saw her always with a dog, in fact, they were inseparable.
You have told us how you in hospital treated dog bites. Did you ever yourself see a dog attack? - No, I did not see it myself, but I did attend to those who had been bitten by dogs.
THE PRESIDENT: Does that conclude your cross examination?
MAJOR MUNRO: Yes.
THE PRESIDENT: The Court will now adjourn and reassemble at Belsen at 1530 hours.
(At 1530 hours the Court reassembled at Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp, the President, Judge Advocate, Members, Prosecutor, Defending Officers, Interpreter, Shorthand Writer and Accused being present.)
(Brigadier H. L. Glyn Hughes is recalled by the Court on his former oath.)
THE PRESIDENT: Will you show us the layout of the camp? - Yes.
(Brigadier Glyn Hughes conducts the Court round the camp and explains the layout.)
(The witness withdraws)
The Court having arrived at the mass burial graves at the far end of the camp Mr. H. O. Le Druillenec is recalled by the Court on his former oath.
THE PRESIDENT: Yesterday you told us in your evidence that you were employed by the Germans in dragging corpses from the huts nearest where you were up to these graves. Can you show us by pointing out the route you used to take? - I will take you back on that route.
(The witness withdraws)
(Brigadier H. L. Glyn Hughes is recalled by the Court on his former oath.)
THE PRESIDENT: Will you now conduct the Court through the areas described in your evidence? - Yes.
(The Court inspected Camp No. 1 and Camp No. 2.)
(THe witness withdraws)
THE PRESIDENT: (To the Defending Officers): I want you to explain to each of your accused that the Court have inspected the camp. Nothing was carried out in the way of Court procedure excepting the Brigadier Glyn Hughes and Mr Le Druillenec pointed out the ground which they have described in their evidence. I would like you to explain that the Court was accompanied all the time by the senior Defending Officer as your representative. I would also like you to point out that because it is most important that these accused should realise that we are running this Court under British Justice.